RICKETS: A SKELETAL DISORDER

August 2, 2017

Rickets is a childhood bone disorder where bones soften and become prone to fractures and deformity. It is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency. It is a skeletal disorder. It is rare in industrialized nations, but fairly common in some developing countries.

Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood. Osteomalacia is a similar condition occurring in adults, caused by deficiencies of vitamin D, phosphate or calcium.

 

Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the gastrointestinal tract. A deficiency of vitamin D makes it difficult to maintain proper calcium and phosphorus levels in bones, which can cause rickets. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones.

 

Rickets may lead to skeletal deformity and short stature. In females, pelvic distortion from rickets may cause problems with childbirth later in life. Severe rickets has been associated with respiratory failure in children.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of rickets can include:

  • Delayed growth

  • Pain in the spine, pelvis and legs

  • Muscle weakness

 

Because rickets softens the growth plates at the ends of a child's bones, it can cause skeletal deformities such as:

  • Bowed legs or knock knees

  • Thickened wrists and ankles

  • Breastbone projection

 
When to see a Doctor

Call your doctor right away if your child is showing signs of rickets. If the disorder isn’t treated during a child’s growth period, the child may end up with a very short stature as an adult. Deformities can also become permanent if the disorder goes untreated.

Causes

Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and phosphorus from food. Rickets can occur if your child's body doesn't get enough vitamin D or if his or her body has problems using vitamin D properly. Occasionally, not getting enough calcium or lack of calcium and vitamin D can cause rickets.

 
Lack of vitamin D

Children who don't get enough vitamin D from these two sources can develop a deficiency:

  • Sunlight. Your skin produces vitamin D when it's exposed to sunlight. But children in developed countries tend to spend less time outdoors. They're also more likely to use sunscreen, which blocks the rays that trigger the skin's production of vitamin D.

  • Food. Fish oils, fatty fish and egg yolks contain vitamin D. Vitamin D also has been added to some foods, such as milk, cereal and some fruit juices.

 
Problems with absorption

Some children are born with or develop medical conditions that affect the way their bodies absorb vitamin D. Some examples include:

  • Celiac disease

  • Inflammatory bowel disease

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Kidney problems

 

In rare cases, children can be born with a genetic form of rickets.

Risk Factors

Factors that can increase a child's risk of rickets include:

  • Dark skin. Dark skin doesn't react as strongly to sunshine as lighter skin, so it produces less vitamin D.

  • Mother's vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy. A baby born to a mother with severe vitamin D deficiency can be born with signs of rickets or develop them within a few months after birth.

  • Geographical location. Children who live in geographical locations where there is less sunshine are at higher risk of rickets.

  • Premature birth. Babies born before their due dates are more likely to develop rickets.

  • Medications. Certain types of anti-seizure medications and antiretroviral medications, used to treat HIV infections, appear to interfere with the body's ability to use vitamin D.

  • Exclusive breast-feeding. Breast milk doesn't contain enough vitamin D to prevent rickets. Babies who are exclusively breast-fed should receive vitamin D drops.

Complications

If left untreated, rickets can lead to:

  • Failure to grow

  • Abnormally curved spine

  • Skeletal deformities

  • Dental defects

  • Seizures

Diagnosis

During the exam, the doctor will gently press on your child's bones, checking for abnormalities. He or she will pay particular attention to your child's:

  • Skull. 

    Babies who have rickets often have softer skull bones and might have a delay in the closure of the soft spots (fontanels).

  • Legs. While even healthy toddlers are a little bowlegged, an exaggerated bowing of the legs is common with rickets.

  • Chest. Some children with rickets develop abnormalities in their rib cages, which can flatten and cause their breastbones to protrude.

  • Wrists and ankles. Children who have rickets often have wrists and ankles that are larger or thicker than normal.

X-rays of the affected bones can reveal bone deformities. Blood and urine tests can confirm a diagnosis of rickets and also monitor the progress of treatment.

Treatment

Adding vitamin D or calcium to the diet generally corrects the bone problems associated with rickets.

 

Most cases of rickets can be treated with vitamin D and calcium supplements. Follow your child's doctor's directions as to dosage. Too much vitamin D can be harmful.

 

When rickets are due to another underlying medical problem, your child may need additional medications or other treatment.

 

Your child's doctor will monitor your child's progress with X-rays and blood tests.

 
Surgical and other procedures

For some cases of bowlegs or spinal deformities, your doctor might suggest special bracing to position your child's body appropriately as the bones grow. More-severe skeletal deformities might require surgery.

Prognosis

Increasing vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate levels will help correct the disorder. Most children with rickets see improvements in about one week.

 

Skeletal deformities will often improve or disappear over time if rickets is corrected while the child is still young. However, skeletal deformities can become permanent if the disorder isn’t treated during a child’s growth period.

Prevention

Exposure to sunlight provides the best source of vitamin D. During most seasons, 10 to 15 minutes of exposure to the sun near midday is enough. However, if you're dark-skinned, if it's winter or if you live in northern latitudes, you might not be able to get enough vitamin D from sun exposure.

 

In addition, because of skin cancer concerns, infants and young children, especially, are warned to avoid direct sun or to always wear sunscreen and protective clothing.

 

To prevent rickets, make sure your child eats foods that contain vitamin D naturally such as fatty fish, fish oil and egg yolks, or that have been fortified with vitamin D, such as:

  • Infant formula

  • Cereal

  • Bread

  • Milk, but not foods made from milk, such as yogurt and cheese

  • Orange juice

 

Check labels to determine the vitamin D content of fortified foods.

 

If you're pregnant, ask your doctor about taking vitamin D supplements.

 

Because human milk contains only a small amount of vitamin D, all breast-fed infants should receive 400 international units (IU) of oral vitamin D daily.

 

Currently, studies are unclear about how much vitamin D is enough in certain populations, but the current recommendation is for at least 400 IU daily.

 

Given the fact that vitamin D supplementation may not be readily available worldwide, more research needs to be performed to determine the "safe" amount of sunlight exposure for infants and children if we are going to successfully prevent rickets throughout the world.

 

 

....making effort to "STAY WELL"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE:

http://www.healthline.com/health/rickets#prevention7

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/176941.php

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000344.htm

http://www.medicinenet.com/rickets/article.htm

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/985510-overview

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rickets

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rickets/home/ovc-20200467

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/rickets/Pages/introduction.aspx

 

 

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The contents herein are for informational purposes only, therefore, should not be used as an alternative to seeking independent medical advice, and we cannot take responsibility for an individual’s decision to use them as such. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.